ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS – PAPER I

 

ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL

1.1 Meaning, extension and improvement of Anthropology.

1.2 Relationships with different disciplines:

  • Sociologies,
  • Conduct Sciences,
  • Life Sciences,
  • Clinical Sciences,
  • Studies of the planet
  • Humanities.

1.3 Main parts of Anthropology, their degree and importance:

  • Social Anthropology.
  • Natural Anthropology.
  • Archaeological Anthropology.
  • Etymological Anthropology.
anthropology optional
ANTHROPOLOGY OPTIONAL SYLLABUS – PAPER I

 

1.4 Human Evolution and the development of Man:

  • Natural and Cultural variables in human advancement.
  • Hypotheses of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).
  • Manufactured hypothesis of advancement; Brief blueprint of terms and ideas of transformative science (Doll’s standard, Cope’s standard, Gause’s standard, parallelism, combination, versatile radiation, and mosaic development).

 

1.5 Characteristics of Primates;

  • Transformative Trend and Primate Taxonomy;
  • Primate Adaptations;
  • (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy;
  • Primate Behavior;
  • Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates;
  • Living Major Primates;
  • Near Anatomy of Man and Apes;
  • Skeletal changes because of erect stance and its suggestions.

 

1.6 Phylogenetic status, qualities and geological appropriation of the accompanying:

  • Plio-preleistocene primates in South and East Africa – Australopithecus
  • Homo erectus: Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus heidelbergensis), Asia (Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis).
  • Neanderthal Man-La-Chapelle-aux-holy people (Classical sort), Mt. Carmel (Progressive sort).
  • Rhodesian man.
  • Homo sapiens — Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

 

1.7 The natural premise of life:

  • The Cell, DNA construction and replication,
  • Protein Synthesis, Gene,
  • Transformation,
  • Chromosomes and Cell Division.

 

1.8 (a) Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology Chronology: Relative and Absolute Dating strategies.

       (b) Cultural Evolution-Broad Outlines of Prehistoric societies:

  • Palaeolithic
  • Mesolithic
  • Neolithic
  • Chalcolithic
  • Copper-Bronze Age
  • Iron Age

 

2.1 The Nature of Culture:

  • The idea and attributes of culture and civilization;
  • Ethnocentrism versus social Relativism.

 

2.2 The Nature of Society:

  • Idea of Society;
  • Society and Culture;
  • Social Institutions;
  • Gatherings;
  • Social separation.

 

2.3 Marriage:

  • Definition and all inclusiveness;
  • Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hyper tough, hypo unpleasant, inbreeding no);
  • Sorts of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, bunch marriage).
  • Elements of marriage;
  • Marriage guidelines (particular, prescriptive and proscriptive);
  • Marriage installments (lady riches and settlement).

 

2.4 Family:

  • Definition and all inclusiveness;
  • Family, family and homegrown gatherings;
  • elements of family;
  • Sorts of family (according to the points of view of design, blood connection, marriage, home and progression);
  • Effect of urbanization, industrialization, and women’s activist developments on family.

 

2.5 Kinship:

  • Affiliation and Affinity;
  • Standards and sorts of drop (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral, Ambilineal); Forms of plunge gatherings (genealogy, group, phratry, moiety, and fellow);
  • Connection wording (expressive and classificatory);
  • Plunge, Filiation and Complimentary Filiations;
  • Plunge and Alliance

 

  1. Monetary association:
  • Importance, extension and pertinence of financial humanities;
  • Formalist and Substantivist banter;
  • Standards overseeing creation, appropriation and trade (correspondence, reallocation and market), in networks, staying alive on hunting and assembling, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, cultivation, and horticulture; globalization and native financial frameworks.

 

  1. Political association and Social Control:
  • Band, clan, chiefdom, realm and state;
  • ideas of force, authority and authenticity;
  • social control, regulation, and equity in basic social orders
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  1. Religion:
  • Anthropological ways to deal with the investigation of religion (transformative, mental and practical); monotheism and polytheism;
  • consecrated and profane;
  • fantasies and ceremonies;
  • types of religion in ancestral and worker social orders (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism);
  • religion, enchantment and science recognized;
  • Magico-strict functionaries (cleric, shaman, medication man, magician and witch).

 

  1. Anthropological speculations:
  • Traditional evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan, and Frazer)
  • Authentic particularism (Boas); Diffusionism (British, German and American)
  • Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural-functionalism (Radcliffe-Brown)
  • Structuralism (L’evi – Strauss and E. Filter)
  • Culture and character (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora – du Bois).
  • Neo – evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)
  • Social realism (Harris)
  • Representative and interpretive hypotheses (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)
  • Mental speculations (Tyler, Conklin)
  • Post-innovation in human studies

 

  1. Culture, language and correspondence:
  • Nature, beginning and qualities of language;
  • verbal and non-verbal correspondence;
  • Social setting of language use.
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  1. Research strategies in ANTHROPOLOGY :
  • Hands on work custom in human studies
  • Qualification between strategy, technique and philosophy
  • Apparatuses of information assortment: perception, interview, plans, survey, Case study, lineage, life-history, oral history, auxiliary wellsprings of data, participatory strategies.
  • Examination, translation and show of information.

9.1 Human Genetics

Strategies and Application: Methods for investigation of hereditary standards in man-family study (family examination, twin review, cultivate kid, co-twin strategy, cytogenetic technique, chromosomal and karyo-type examination), biochemical strategies, immunological techniques, D.N.A. innovation and recombinant advances.

9.2 Mendelian hereditary qualities in man-family study, single variable, multifaceted, deadly, sub-deadly and polygenic legacy in man.

9.3 Concept of hereditary polymorphism and determination, Mendelian populace, Hardy-Weinberg regulation; causes and changes which cut down recurrence – transformation, separation, movement, choice, inbreeding and hereditary float. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, hereditary burden, hereditary impact of consanguineous and cousin relationships.

9.4. Chromosomes and chromosomal distortions in man, strategy.

  • Mathematical and primary variations (messes).
  • Sex chromosomal abnormalities – Klinefelter’s (XXY), Turner (XO), very female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic messes.
  • Autosomal distortions – Down condition, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-talk disorders.
  • Hereditary engravings in human sickness, hereditary screening, hereditary advising, human DNA profiling, quality planning and genome study.

9.5 Race and bigotry

  • The organic premise of morphological variety of non-metric and metric characters.
  • Racial measures, racial characteristics according to heredity and climate;
  • Organic premise of racial order, racial separation and race crossing in man.

 

9.6

  • a) Age, sex and populace variety as hereditary marker-ABO, Rh blood gatherings, HLA Hp, moving, Gm, blood chemicals.
  • b) Physiological attributes Hb level, muscle versus fat, beat rate, respiratory capacities and tactile insights in various social and financial gatherings.

 

9.7 Concepts and techniques for Ecological Anthropology. Bio-Cultural Adaptations, Genetic and Non-hereditary variables. Man’s physiological reactions to natural anxieties: sweltering desert, chilly, high elevation environment.

 

9.8 Epidemiological Anthropology:

  • Wellbeing and illness, Infectious and non-irresistible sicknesses
  • Wholesome lack related sicknesses

 

  1. Idea of human development and improvement:
  • Phases of development – pre-natal, natal, baby, youth, immaturity, development, senescence.
  • Factors influencing development and improvement hereditary, natural, biochemical, nourishing, social and financial.
  • Maturing and senescence: Theories and perceptions – natural and ordered life span.
  • Human constitution and somatotypes. Procedures for development studies.

 

11.1 Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bio events to fruitfulness. Ripeness examples and differentials.

 

11.2 Demographic hypotheses organic, social and social.

 

11.3 Biological and socio-natural elements impacting fruitfulness, ripeness, natality and mortality.

 

  1. Uses of Anthropology:
  • Human studies of sports,
  • Dietary humanities,
  • Human studies in planning of guard and different types of gear,
  • Criminological Anthropology,
  • Strategies and standards of individual recognizable proof and remaking,
  • Applied human hereditary qualities. 

 Read More : Anthropology Answer Writing

  • Paternity finding, hereditary guiding and genetic counselling,
  • DNA innovation in sicknesses and medication,
  • Serogenetics and cytogenetics in regenerative science.